Braam1,2,3?, F.F.S. Hot Jupiters formed beyond the frost line, as in our solar system, and migrated inward due to interaction with the solar nebula ... present around at least 99% of all stars. Extremely irradiated hot Jupiters also have some of the most inflated radii, which interior and evolution models struggle to reproduce (Laughlin et al. Hot Jupiters were the first exoplanets to be discovered around main sequence stars and astonished us with their close-in orbits. predicted that atmospheres of hot giant exoplanets should contain copious amounts of these molecules and can, therefore, provide critical insights into planetary formation (Madhusudhan et al. 2016). Evidence for chromium hydride in the atmosphere of Hot Jupiter WASP-31b M. A new study from Cornell University shows that when the "Hot Jupiters" approach their host star, the planet can force the star’s spin axis to precess much like a wobbling, spinning top. Molecular species in planetary atmospheres provide key insights into their atmospheric processes and formation conditions. Hot Jupiters that have been observed to be venting material do so at a very small rate, relative to the size of the planet. They are a prime example of how exoplanets have challenged our textbook, solar-system inspired story of how planetary systems form and evolve. whether hot Jupiters can form in situ, and if not, how they migrated to their current location, is made especially acute by short-period hot Jupiters. According to new Cornell research published in Science, these large, gaseous exoplanets can make their suns wob 2011; Thorngren & Fortney 2018). We have evidence for non-uniform clouds through phase curve observations of hot Jupiters (and brown dwarfs), where we observe how the reflected starlight from the planet changes as the planet orbits its host star.However, various difficulties with obtaining phase curve measurements make this method of probing cloud cover difficult to generalize to the vast majority of exoplanets. (At a distance of about 500 million miles from the Sun, Jupiter, by comparison, takes 12 years to complete an orbit.) van der Tak1,4, K.L. Statistical evidence for temperature inversions in ultra-hot Jupiters The thermal structure of hot gas giant exoplanet atmospheres is likely to be inverted for the hottest planets, a class of planets known as ultra-hot Jupiters. Based on current observations I made a ‘back of the envelope’ calculation and found it would take at least an order of magnitude longer than the age of the universe for the planet to boil away. In recent years, high-resolution Doppler spectroscopy in the near-infrared has allowed detections of H 2 O and CO in the atmospheres of several hot Jupiters. They are the size of Jupiter, or larger, but are so close to their star they complete one full orbit in a matter of days – or even hours. The hot Jupiter HD 209458b is one of the most favorable targets … Chubb5, and M. Min5 1 Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, Landleven 12, 9747 AD Groningen, The Netherlands 2 School of GeoSciences, University of Edinburgh, King’s Buildings, Edinburgh EH9 3FF, UK “Hot Jupiters” are currently the most intensively ... (HST) provide evidence for com-plex physical processes in the gaseous envelopes (at-mospheres) of these planets. Based on current evidence, how common are planetary systems? Posted by Will Baird at 8:00 AM. For example, the Ly- For want of a better word, astronomers simply call these planets "hot Jupiters." These systems may be undergoing a stalled version of tidal migration that produces warm Jupiters over hot Jupiters, and provide evidence for a population of multi-planet systems that are not flat and have been sculpted by Kozai-Lidov oscillations.

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