[89] The dredging and dam building that followed would permanently alter the river, disrupting its natural flow but also providing electricity, irrigation, navigability and other benefits to the region. [155][156] US government intervention, to which the states of Alaska, Idaho, and Oregon objected, included an 11-day closure of an Alaska fishery. A number of cleanup efforts are currently underway, including Superfund projects at Portland Harbor, Hanford, and Lake Roosevelt. Some groups remained essentially unaffected, such as the Sanpoil and Nespelem people, whose culture remained centered on fishing. Gray sailed about 20 miles up the estuary of the river, traded with the Indians for a few days, and then left after drawing a chart of the mouth of the river. Taking a cue from a Columbia River history book Kahn gave him, Guthrie penned the now-famous verses to "Roll On, Columbia," which has become a Northwest anthem and the official folk song of Washington state. On his return to the north, Thompson explored the one remaining part of the river he had not yet seen, becoming the first Euro-descended person to travel the entire length of the river. The Columbia River forms one of the great North American drainage basins covering much of the states of Washington, Oregon, Idaho and the Canadian province of British Columbia. A can weighing 1 pound (0.45 kg) could be sold for 8d or 9d. What do you think of the answers? [107] The project includes measures to mitigate environmental damage; for instance, the US Army Corps of Engineers must restore 12 times the area of wetland damaged by the project. [11], The Columbia enters eastern Washington flowing south and turning to the west at the Spokane River confluence. In comparison, the Mississippi drops less than 0.65 feet per mile (12.3 cm/km). Glorious Temple of the Information Age! [79], On May 12, 1792, Gray returned south and crossed the Columbia Bar, becoming the first known explorer of European descent to enter the river. The Columbia River. [25] Between 50 and 20 million years ago, from the Eocene through the Miocene eras, tremendous volcanic eruptions frequently modified much of the landscape traversed by the Columbia. [70], As river development continued in the 20th century, each of these major fishing sites was flooded by a dam, beginning with Cascades Rapids in 1938. Given its popularity, I had to combine a few shots to remove some swimmers. [188] In some of the eastern parts of the watershed, especially shrub-steppe regions with Continental climate patterns, precipitation maximums occur in early summer. The Nez Perce and Cayuse kept large herds and made annual long-distance trips to the Great Plains for bison hunting, adopted the plains culture to a significant degree, and became the main conduit through which horses and the plains culture diffused into the Columbia River region. Its discharge is roughly a third of the Columbia's at the rivers' confluence but compared to the Columbia upstream of the confluence the Snake is longer (113%) and has a larger drainage basin (104%). Start studying Geography Flashcards. [109] The project's cost is estimated at $150 million. Americans generally settled south of the Columbia, mainly in the Willamette Valley. [71][158] In the winter of 1994, the return of coho salmon far exceeded expectations, which was attributed in part to the fishing ban. EuroAmerican explorers first included the correct location of the Columbia River on maritime charts in the late eighteenth century, when Bruno de Hezeta described it as a bay or perhaps a river estuary in 1775. From this location, you also get a fantastic view of the Columbia River Valley in … The Chinook tribe, which is not federally recognized, who live near the lower Columbia River, call it Wimahl or Wimal in the Upper Chinook (Kiksht) language,[46] and it is Nch’i-Wàna or Nchi wana to the Sahaptin (Ichishkíin Sɨ́nwit)-speaking peoples of its middle course in present-day Washington. [29] The exact number of floods is unknown, but geologists have documented at least 40; evidence suggests that they occurred between about 19,000 and 13,000 years ago. [142] These dams and reservoirs limit the recovery of upriver salmon runs to Idaho's Salmon and Clearwater rivers. Overland explorers entered the Willamette Valley through the scenic but treacherous Columbia River Gorge, and pioneers began to settle the valley in increasing numbers. They have been used for transportation since ancient times, linking the region's many cultural groups. The Columbia River was first discovered around 1775 by Spanish explorers. [47] The river is known as swah'netk'qhu by the Sinixt people, who live in the area of the Arrow Lakes in the river's upper reaches in Canada. [151] In some cases, the Army Corps of Engineers transports juvenile fish downstream by truck or river barge. Sockeye salmon, Coho and Chinook (also known as "king") salmon, and steelhead, all of the genus Oncorhynchus, are ocean fish that migrate up the rivers at the end of their life cycles to spawn. Punchbowl is a very popular waterfall although it's about two miles of hiking from the parking lot. Plutonium for nuclear weapons was produced for decades at the Hanford Site, which is now the most contaminated nuclear site in the US. Along the upper Snake River and Salmon River, the Shoshone Bannock tribes are present. Strong currents and the shifting sandbar remain a threat to ships entering the river and necessitate continuous maintenance of the jetties. Research in the mid-1980s found that juvenile salmon were suffering substantially from the predatory pikeminnow,[153] and in 1990, in the interest of protecting salmon, a "bounty" program was established to reward anglers for catching pikeminnow. [92] Changes to the river over the years have included the construction of jetties at the river's mouth, dredging, and the construction of canals and navigation locks. No. Sign in. At the time, the region had over 100,000 Indigenous inhabitants. Month, Vancouver sent Lieutenant William Robert Broughton, his second-in-command, up the Columbia the! 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