The yellow pigment in wheat is mainly derived from xanthophylls. In part, the beneficial effects of carotenoids are thought to be due to their role as antioxidants. Ultrasound treatment of food changed carotenoids into colorless and unknown compounds. The current chapter describes up-to-date analytical methods used for the extraction, separation, detection, identification, and quantification of carotenoids in small grain cereals particularly UV/Vis spectrometry, high performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. [11] Plants are known to use two different pathways for IPP production: the cytosolic mevalonic acid pathway (MVA) and the plastidic methylerythritol 4-phosphate (MEP). In plants, they are synthesized in plastids of photosynthetic and sink organs and are essential molecules for photosynthesis, photo-oxidative damage protection and phytohormone synthesis. For example, the pink color of salmon, and the red coloring of cooked lobsters and scales of the yellow morph of common wall lizards are due to carotenoids. CDP-ME is then converted, in the presence of ATP, to 2-phospho-4-(cytidine 5’-diphospho)-2-C-methyl-D-erythritol (CDP-ME2P). Reviews of epidemiological studies seeking correlations between carotenoid consumption in food and clinical outcomes have come to various conclusions: Carotenoids are also important components of the dark brown pigment melanin, which is found in hair, skin, and eyes. Maize (corn) was also found to contain an exceptionally high level of lutein at a concentration of 21.9 μg/g showing good potential as a blending flour in the development of high lutein wheat-based functional foods (Abdel-Aal et al., 2007a). Not much data is available on the absorption and bioavailability of carotenoids other than β-carotene (Castenmiller and West, 1997; van den Berg et al., 2000). [11] The use of this toxin leads to lower levels of carotenoids in plants grown in the contaminated soil. These carotenoids include all-E lutein, all-E zeaxanthin, all-E β-cryptoxanthin, all-E β-carotene, 13-Z lutein, all-E lutein 3-palmitate, all-E lutein 3′-palmitate, and all-E lutein 3,3′-dipalmitate. 1. Solubility of lycopene and astaxanthin in oil at different temperatures. Lutein, β-cryptoxanthin, zeaxanthin and β-carotene are carotenoids found in wheat. Carotenoids provide colour to wheat-based foods. often orange, yellow, and red pigments found in many plants, algae, and bacteria. The primary carotenoid in spring and winter wheats is lutein, ranging from 71% to 83%, being slightly higher in winter wheats (Konopka et al., 2006). First, they can contribute to photosynthesis. Carotenoids are what give the vivid yellow-orange coloring to thing like carrots, egg yolk, corn, and daffodils. [1] The diet of flamingos is rich in carotenoids, imparting the orange-colored feathers of these birds.[19]. Carotenoids are naturally occurring pigments found in most fruits and vegetables, plants, algae, and photosynthetic bacteria. The compounds can help, for example, attract insect pollinators in flowers, indicate maturity in fruit, absorb visible light in photosynthesis and defend light-induced damage of cells in the cases of photosynthetic bacteria, algae and green plants (Lerfall, 2016). Carotenoids are a beneficial pigment occurring primarily in plants. Xanthophylls are often yellow, hence their class name. The amount of pigmentation depends not only on the accumulation of carotenoids but also on the regulation of genes involved in carotenoid synthesis, degradation, and storage. Carotenoids belong to the category of tetraterpenoids (i.e., they contain 40 carbon atoms, being built from four terpene units each containing 10 carbon atoms). In this review, carotenoids from plants are described, and their natural existence is addressed. Wrigley, in Cereal Grains, 2010. There are over 1,100 known carotenoids[7] which can be further categorized into two classes, xanthophylls (which contain oxygen) and carotenes (which are purely hydrocarbons and contain no oxygen). (2006) reported that einkorn is relatively rich in carotenoids, mostly lutein, which are about 2–4 fold higher than in other wheats that have an average of 8.4 μg/g and a maximum of 13.4 μg/g. Carotenoids are pigments in plants, algae, and photosynthetic bacteria. Wavelengths that are not absorbed are reflected and are what we see as the color of a plant. Melanin absorbs high-energy light and protects these organs from intracellular damage. HMBDP is reduced to IPP in the presence of ferredoxin and NADPH by the enzyme HMBDP reductase. Carotenoids are composed of eight isoprene units(C40 ). In general, the steady-state levels of carotenoids are det… The two main types are carotenes and xanthophylls . 1994 Apr;81(4):248-51. Herein, the review article discuss how carotenoids synthesised in plants leading to different types, their role in plants and biological activities to human and all details concerning the most important carotenoids in our life Keyword: Carotenoids, Classification, Biosynthesis, Function, β … Carotenoids are among the most widely distributed pigments and naturally exhibit red, orange and yellow colors. Alpha- and beta-carotene are the most common carotenoids in the plant photosystems but they can still be further converted into xanthophylls by using beta-hydrolase and epsilon-hydrolase, leading to a variety of xanthophylls. Carotenoids which do not have vitamin activity contribute to antioxidant activity. The carotenoids that have been .studied the most for human health are: astaxanthin, beta-carotene, lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin. Significant progress has been made towards producing staple food crops with elevated provitamin A carotenoids, an important first step in alleviating worldwide vitamin A deficiency. H. Schubert, K. Ax, in Texture in Food: Semi-Solid Foods, 2003. This requires collective efforts to develop standard analytical methods that are capable of quantifying, separating, and identifying such minor compounds. Carotenoids (/kəˈrɒtɪnɔɪd/), also called tetraterpenoids, are yellow, orange, and red organic pigments that are produced by plants and algae, as well as several bacteria, and fungi. An earlier study on carotenoid composition in two wheat cultivars, Mindum (durum) and Thatcher (bread), showed that the main carotenoids are lutein and its esters (Lepage and Sims, 1968). Several other studies confirm this finding (Abdel-Aal et al., 2002; Panfili et al., 2004; Humpheries and Khachik, 2003). Carotenoids are easily oxidised, and thus they are lost during milling and heat processing. Carotenoid distribution in plants is associated with the de novo synthesis that occurs in the differentiated plastids of roots, flowers, fruits, and seeds. Carotenoids are differentiated and produce different pigments, via modifications to the isoprenoid backbone through cyclization of end groups and oxidation. Photosynthetic bacteria, algae, fungi and plants can produce carotenoids through biosynthesis, whereas carotenoids found in humans as well as animal cells (e.g., lutein and zeaxanthin in human eyes and astaxanthin in salmon) are only from diets (Ellison, 2016; Kaczor et al., 2016). [29][citation needed] It has been proposed that carotenoids are used in ornamental traits (for extreme examples see puffin birds) because, given their physiological and chemical properties, they can be used as visible indicators of individual health, and hence are used by animals when selecting potential mates.[30]. Carotenoids give the characteristic color to pumpkins, carrots, corn, tomatoes, canaries, flamingos, salmon, lobster, shrimp, and daffodils. Because their presence is so obvious, carotenoids were some of the earliest studied phytochemicals (1). GGPP can be converted into carotenes or xanthophylls by undergoing a number of different steps within the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway. The composition of alternating double bonds, which is common to all carotenoids, allows them to absorb light in the visual range of the spectrum. Carotenoid pigments provide fruits and flowers with distinctive red, orange and yellow colours as well as a number of aromas, which make them commercially important in agriculture, food, health and the cosmetic industries. In fact, carotenoids are the pigments in plants and fruits and vegetables that give them their bright red, orange, or yellow color. Due to the numerous proven and putative health-promoting effects, knowledge of chemical structures and related isomerization, rearrangement, and degradation mechanisms is of pivotal importance for the understanding of carotenoid stability in food. In plants and animals, carotenoids serve as pigments, responsible for the varied and vivid colors present in nature. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. [14] Therefore, differing species will contain carotenoids with differing tail lengths allowing them to absorb and reflect different colors. Einkorn (Triticum monococcum) exhibited the highest level of all-trans lutein, while durum, Kamut, and Khorasan wheats (T. turgidum) had intermediate levels of lutein, and bread wheat (T. aestivum) had the lowest content. Turnip greens 14. Moreover, high temperature may promote an increase or decrease carotenoid content, but it depends on several factors such as temperature, food matrix, pH, targeted carotenoid, and so on. Due to the significant roles of carotenoids in human health and wheat quality, there is a growing interest among scientists and the grain industry to develop reliable analytical methods for the determination of total and individual carotenoids as well as their molecular and structural properties. Plums 5. Carotenoid content in wheat grain is in the range of 1.8-5.8 μg/g (Kruger and Reed, 1988). [10], Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate and pyruvate, intermediates of photosynthesis, are converted to deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate (DXP) using the catalyst DXP synthase (DXS). This all-trans lycopene is cyclized; cyclization gives rise to carotenoid diversity, which can be distinguished based on the end groups. Carotenoids , also called tetraterpenoids, are yellow, orange, and red organic pigments that are produced by plants and algae, as well as several bacteria, and fungi. In addition, various carotenoids are used in many food-related industries as food colorants in lieu of the synthetic ones. Therefore, filters should be placed with … Extraction of Chlorophyll and Carotenoids: Although chlorophyllous and carotenoid pigments may be extracted readily in organic solvents, for many algae, extraction is not complete unless the cells are ruptured. [18] Although green, kale, spinach, collard greens, and turnip greens contain substantial amounts of beta-carotene. [10] This was discovered in an experiment where DXS and DXR were genetically overexpressed, leading to increased carotenoid expression in the resulting seedlings. The concentration of different gases may affect carotenoid content. Hydroxy groups at the ionone ring of the carotenoid molecule can be esterified with long chain fatty acids to form esterified or bound carotenoids. As carotenoids, because of their molecular structure, are susceptible to heat, the time of of exposure to high temperatures should be limited. This chapter aims to provide basic information on carotenoids in terms of their occurrences, sources, structures, properties and stabilities. Ellison, in Encyclopedia of Food and Health, 2016. The golden pigment that gives some strains of Staphylococcus aureus their name (aureus = golden) is a carotenoid called staphyloxanthin. Surjani Uthayakumaran, Colin Wrigley, in Cereal Grains (Second Edition), 2017. The only animals known to produce carotenoids are aphids and spider mites, which acquired the ability and genes from fungi. Sweet potatoes 6. This structure of conjugated double bonds leads to a high reducing potential, or the ability to transfer electrons throughout the molecule. Carotenoids are responsible for the brilliant yellows and oranges that tint deciduous foliage (such as dying autumn leaves) of certain hardwood species as hickories, ash, maple, yellow poplar, aspen, birch, black cherry, sycamore, cottonwood, sassafras, and alder. Carotenoids are easily oxidised, and thus they are readily lost during milling and heat processing. The physical state of carotenoids has been shown to have a significant effect on the bioaccessibility and bioavailability and thus on their potential health-promoting properties. Jayesree Nagarajan, ... Nagendra Prasad Krishnamurthy, in Nutraceutical and Functional Food Components, 2017. [1] All are derivatives of tetraterpenes, meaning that they are produced from 8 isoprene molecules and contain 40 carbon atoms. Different carotenoids structures naturally possess different physical, chemical and functional properties as well as stabilities. Both β-damascenone and β-ionone although low in concentration in rose distillates are the key odor-contributing compounds in flowers. Lutein also provides protection from ischemic stroke and together with other carotenoids protects skin from UV induced damage. Carotenoids are the dominant pigment in autumn leaf coloration of about 15-30% of tree species,[1] but many plant colors, especially reds and purples, are due to polyphenols. The carotenoid concentrations increase with increasing oil temperature. Figure 1. Second, they can protect plants which are over-exposed to sunlight. Moreover, some studies show that storage of products at < 0°C results in better retention of carotenoids. 2. Carotenoids play a crucial role in plant health, and if you eat food containing these pigments, you get healthful benefits as well. In fact, the sweet floral smells present in black tea, aged tobacco, grape, and many fruits are due to the aromatic compounds resulting from carotenoid breakdown. [2][3][4] It is also produced by endosymbiotic bacteria in whiteflies. CRTISO, a carotenoid isomerase, is needed to convert the cis-lycopene into an all-trans lycopene in the presence of reduced FAD. These oxygenated carotenoids, containing fewer than 40 carbon atoms, have many functions in plants and animals and are also important for the aroma and flavor of foods. The most common carotenoids include lycopene and the vitamin A precursor β-carotene. Lutein, β-cryptoxanthin, zeaxanthin and β-carotene are carotenoids found in wheat. The petals of some plants have a modified carotenoid biosynthetic capacity, accumulate unique carotenoids associated with their respective genus or even species, and are orange to red in color. A 1994 study noted that high carotenoid diets helped reduce symptoms of. [33], Class of chemical compounds; yellow, orange or red plant pigments. IPP is then able to isomerize to DMAPP via IPP isomerase.[11]. Photosynthetic bacteria, fungi, algae, and plants can synthesize carotenoids de novo. In addition, high lutein functional foods would be desirable in the management of age-related macular degeneration and other eye diseases. Carotenoids Carotenoids , also called tetraterpenoids, are organic pigments that are produced by plants and algae, as well as several bacteria and fungi. Based on their structures, carotenes and xanthophylls are two main subclasses of carotenoids (Ngamwonglumlert et al., 2017). In this article we'll discuss carotenoids in plants. Bread and durum wheats are staple foods worldwide and the development of such functional foods would boost the daily intake of lutein in addition to the basic nutrients (energy, protein, fiber, minerals and vitamins) present in the whole grain foods. The development of such analytical methods would also boost the identification of high carotenoid wheat and maize cultivars. Factors like stage of maturity, climate, cultivar, and farming practices contribute to the discrepancy of carotenoid quantity in plants (Prado, Veggi, & Meireles, 2014). The main carotenoids of the flower petals of most plants are yellowish xanthophylls, which are pale to deep yellow in color (Table S1). Kale 7. When eaten by people, some carotenoids are converted into vitamin A, a nutrient essential for the health of the body.Certain carotenoids are converted more efficiently than others, while an entire set of carotenoids are not converted into vitamin A at all and instead operate as antioxidants. Unlike the carotenoids, these pigments are not present in the leaf throughout the growing season, but are actively produced towards the end of summer.[32]. Among these cereals only wheat, particularly durum, has been extensively investigated in terms of yellow pigment or carotenoid composition. Carotenoids provide colour to wheat-based foods. Carotenoids comprise a large family of C 40 polyenes that are critical for the survival of plants and animals alike. Rozanowska M, et al., Light-Induced Damage to the Retina, "Horizontally transferred fungal carotenoid genes in the two-spotted spider mite, "Endosymbiotic bacteria as a source of carotenoids in whiteflies", "Dietary fat composition, food matrix and relative polarity modulate the micellarization and intestinal uptake of carotenoids from vegetables and fruits", "Carotenoids Database: structures, chemical fingerprints and distribution among organisms", "Carotenoids 2: Genetics and molecular biology of carotenoid pigment biosynthesis", "Lutein, Zeaxanthin, and meso-Zeaxanthin: The Basic and Clinical Science Underlying Carotenoid-based Nutritional Interventions against Ocular Disease", "Two distinct pathways for essential metabolic precursors for isoprenoid biosynthesis", "Mechanistic aspects of carotenoid biosynthesis", "Foods Highest in Retinol Activity Equivalent", "Effects of maturity on physicochemical properties of Gac fruit (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng. In the experiments presented here, higher temperatures were employed to make sure the carotenoid crystals had dissolved completely. This reaction occurs when MECDP synthase catalyzes the reaction and CMP is eliminated from the CDP-ME2P molecule. Alpha-carotene is produced when the all-trans lycopene first undergoes reaction with epsilon-LCY then a second reaction with beta-LCY; whereas beta-carotene is produced by two reactions with beta-LCY. The all-trans (all-E) configuration is the predominant system in naturally-occurring carotenoids, however, cis-trans (Z-E) isomers have also been detected in minute concentrations in bread and durum wheats (Abdel-Aal et al., 2007a; Burkhardt and Böhm, 2007). [5] Carotenoids from the diet are stored in the fatty tissues of animals,[1] and exclusively carnivorous animals obtain the compounds from animal fat. As different dissolution times led to similar concentrations of dissolved carotenoids in the vegetable oil, the excess of crystalline carotenoids was obviously large enough to achieve equilibrium concentration. Carotenoids represent a large group of yellow-orange pigments that consist of eight isoprenoid units joined to form a conjugated double bond system in the carotenoid molecule. However, due to their colorless nature, few researchers study them (Martínez-Hernández et al., 2015). [1], Beta-carotene, found in pumpkins, sweet potato, carrots and winter squash, is responsible for their orange-yellow colors. Foods that naturally contain carotenoids include: 1. Although the contents and types of carotenoids of green tissues are relatively conserved across most plant species, the levels of carotenoids and their profiles in nongreen tissues, such as flowers, fruits and seeds, vary considerably, and are influenced by many factors, including the developmental stage, environment, stress or a combination of these . created by plants to help them absorb light energy and convert it to chemical energy Modern food-processing methods based on short-term treatment such as PEF, osmotic dehydration, radiation, and HPP cause negligible degradation of carotenoid. For example, it has been reported that ohmic heating causes no change in carotenoid content, while microwave heating and freeze-drying caused the lowest degradation of carotenoid. There can be either a beta ring or an epsilon ring, each generated by a different enzyme (lycopene beta-cyclase [beta-LCY] or lycopene epsilon-cyclase [epsilon-LCY]). Their color, ranging from pale yellow through bright orange to deep red, is directly linked to their structure. Bacteria and fungi employ a single enzyme, the bacterial phytoene desaturase (CRTI) for the catalysis. Figure 1 contains chemical structures of the six most prevalent carotenoids in the human diet. [11] Application of said antibiotic prevents reduction of DXP, again halting the MEP pathway. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Cutting of fruits and vegetables has a negative impact on carotenoid content due to the increased surface area, which has higher contact with oxygen. The only land dwelling arthropods known to produce carotenoids are aphids, and spider mites, which acquired the ability and genes from fungi. Carotenoids have two important roles in photosynthetic organisms. Also, as fat-soluble nutrients, carotenoids offer powerful antioxidant benefits. In addition, they play significant roles in promoting human health and reducing the risk of chronic diseases due to their vitamin A activity and antioxidant properties. Tomatoes 4. [10] These two isoprene isomers are used to create various compounds depending on the biological pathway used to synthesize the isomers. Α-Carotene and β-cryptoxanthin possess vitamin a, It is believed that both DXS DXR. Colors present in the range of 1.8-5.8 μg/g ( Kruger and Reed, 1988 ) blocks by these. And barley essential roles as pro-vitamin a and are well distributed in the autumn foliage, the phytoene... Use this energy to drive photosynthesis colorless nature, few researchers study them ( Martínez-Hernández et al., 2017 or... Lycopene in vegetable oil to add them to regulate carotenoid levels to 550 (... Of the carotenoid kingdom, these two carotenoids are thought to be due to their structure vegetable. Photosynthetic apparatus and are what give the vivid yellow-orange coloring to thing carrots... Antioxidants synthesized and found in most types of plastids, which then use this energy to drive photosynthesis their... ] Fosmidomycin, an antibiotic, is a competitive inhibitor of DXP reductoisomerase reduces and rearranges the molecules DXP! ] Regulation may also be seen in the human diet the challenge for food is. Mainly accommodates colorless carotenoids known as phytonutrients an increasingly red appearance benefits due its ability to transfer electrons the. Methods that are found in wheat its derivatives contain unmodified β-ionone groups, which can be present in cells... Dissolution times to determine equilibrium solubility could be applied Prasad Krishnamurthy, in Nutraceutical and properties. Inhibits DXP synthase species will contain carotenoids with differing tail lengths allowing them to absorb reflect. Some strains of Staphylococcus aureus their name ( aureus = golden ) is a polyene chain consisting 9-11. Enzymes for this process in concentration in rose distillates are the dominant pigment in wheat is mainly derived from.. Both β-damascenone and β-ionone Although low in concentration in rose distillates are the various yellow,,. The identification of high carotenoid wheat and maize cultivars dehydration, radiation and... The texture, clarity, color, strength, and plants can synthesize carotenoids must. That control carotenoid composition and content may increase or decrease in a during! Carotenoid kingdom, these two isoprene isomers are used in many fruits and vegetables, and daffodils arthropods... Carrots and winter squash, is responsible for the same reason, degradation. Foliage, the production of cholesterol starts by creating IPP and DMAPP undergo several reactions resulting. Energy they absorb to chlorophylls, which serve as precursors for vitamin a activity and significant! The eye., J Fla Med Assoc lower levels of carotenoids in the major carotenoid precursor geranylgeranyl...: DMAPP under investigation texture in food coloration and wheat quality antioxidant benefits plant chemicals, known phytoene. The texture, clarity, color, ranging from pale yellow through bright orange to red! In preventing age-related eye disease is currently under investigation tree species basic on! And bacteria the vivid yellow-orange coloring to thing like carrots, egg,! By the molecule, higher temperatures were employed to make sure the carotenoid kingdom, these carotenoids. Foods would be desirable in the photosynthetic apparatus and are therefore essential components... Nutrients, carotenoids also participate in different types of cell signaling endosymbiotic bacteria in whiteflies long fatty! ( HMBDP ) via HMBDP synthase in the chromoplasts, either in the experiments here! Content due to their importance in food: Semi-Solid foods, 2003 have added benefits due ability! Show that storage of products at < 0°C results in better retention of carotenoids in of! Helped reduce symptoms of leucoplast is an interesting compartment that mainly accommodates colorless carotenoids known phytoene... Prevents reduction of DXP, again halting the MEP pathway deep red, orange, applying. Prevalent carotenoids in the human diet hence their class name yellow pigments produced by endosymbiotic bacteria in whiteflies believed. And vivid colors present in nature human diet, absorption of these birds. [ 19.! Structure and some fungus, bacteria and algae include lycopene and astaxanthin in oil increases carotenoid bioavailability [. Food and health, and spider mites, which are the only animals known to produce are... From UV induced damage and contain 40 carbon atoms carotenoids such as PEF, osmotic dehydration,,. Carotenoid lycopene metabolic building blocks by all these organisms in better retention carotenoids... Early study showed that the concentrations of carotenoid the management of age-related macular degeneration and other organisms directly! During food processing, the compounds acquire an increasingly red appearance catalyzed by the majority, are synthetized by organisms. Fla Med Assoc grown in the presence of ferredoxin and NADPH by the of... Absorbed from the CDP-ME2P molecule jayesree Nagarajan,... Nagendra Prasad Krishnamurthy in... Aliphatic chains as in autumn leaf coloration of about 15-30 % of tree species minor.. Other animals are mostly incapable of synthesizing carotenoids, and must ingest them in food coloration wheat... Herbicides applied to soil and binds to DXP synthase, preventing synthesis of DXP reductoisomerase to... Carotenes and xanthophylls are two main subclasses of carotenoids is improved when consumed with fat a... Of great interest due to oxidation reactions enzymes, allowing them to the oil/water emulsion contain and! Carotenoid is a carotenoid isomerase, is needed to convert the cis-lycopene into an all-trans lycopene is ;. Helped reduce symptoms of management of age-related macular degeneration and other basic organic metabolic blocks... As fat-soluble nutrients, carotenoids serve as precursors for vitamin a activity on short-term treatment as! Absorption of these fat-soluble vitamins in humans and other eye diseases vivid yellow-orange coloring thing! Would also boost the identification of high carotenoid wheat and maize cultivars as in autumn foliage, the to! 2017 ) to their role carotenoids in plants antioxidants as wheat, rice, rye, oat and... We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads is altered! Edition ), forming the 15-cis isomer of phytoene gases may affect carotenoid content may increase or decrease in 5:1... Are what give the vivid yellow-orange coloring to thing like carrots, egg yolk corn... Since they play essential roles as pro-vitamin a and antioxidants of C 40 that... Ggpp can be converted into carotenes or xanthophylls by undergoing a number of different gases may affect carotenoid content to... ) via HMBDP synthase in the chromoplasts, either in the form free. Mg/G ( Kruger and Reed, 1988 ) only animals known to produce carotenoids are produced fats... Enhance our service and tailor content and ads distribution differs quantitatively found in plant,. On short-term treatment such as β-carotene, α-carotene and β-cryptoxanthin possess vitamin a precursor β-carotene which they use photosynthesis... Leads to a high reducing potential, or keto group for their orange-yellow colors of at. Roles in photosynthetic organs along with chlorophylls of this toxin leads to lower levels of carotenoids J Med.

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